The voice is a musical instrument, just like a guitar or violin. But we have muscle, ligament, and tissue rather than wood and steel, and knowledge of the parts and function of your vocal instrument is essential for all musicians.

Understanding how your vocal cords work can help you gain control of your voice and guide you to successfully eliminate vocal issues.

Here we will discuss:

  • where the vocal cords are

  • how the cords work to create sound

  • how to develop healthy balanced singing with proper vocal warmups and vocal exercises

SINGERS: Want to take a deeper dive into the vocal folds and gain a greater understanding of your instrument? Sign up for my FREE mini-course:

Where Are the Vocal Cords?

The Larynx-min

The vocal cords are housed in your larynx (also called the "voice box"). The larynx is protected by the thyroid cartilage, which appears as the "bump" or Adam's Apple in the middle of the neck that goes up and down when you swallow. The Adam's Apple is more pronounced in men because of the protrusion of longer vocal folds.

Note: "vocal cords" and "vocal folds" are used interchangeably in the singing world. While "vocal folds" is the more proper term, "vocal cords" is more commonly used. You may occasionally see "cords" spelled as "chords" - this is considered incorrect by most voice professionals.

The folds sit over the trachea, or windpipe, and open and close from the back, looking like a V in the open position within the vocal tract.

Note that "abducted" means the vocal folds are open - "adducted" means they are together and closed.

The vocal cords open and closed

What Does Your Voice Box Look Like?

The larynx, commonly known as the voice box, is a complex structure located in the neck region of the human body. It is composed of various cartilages, muscles, and other tissues.


  • Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage in the larynx, it is often referred to as the "Adam's apple." In males, it tends to be more prominent and gives a characteristic bulge in the front of the neck.
  • Cricoid Cartilage: Located just below the thyroid cartilage, it is a ring-shaped cartilage that forms the base of the larynx.
  • Epiglottis: A leaf-shaped cartilage situated above the larynx, the epiglottis helps protect the airway during swallowing by closing over the trachea.

Vocal Cords

  • Inside the larynx, there are two pairs of vocal cords: the true vocal cords (also known as vocal folds) and the false vocal cords (vestibular folds).


  • Various intrinsic and extrinsic muscles surround and control the movement of the larynx. These muscles allow for adjustments in tension, length, and position of the vocal cords, influencing the pitch and volume of the voice.

Ligaments and Membranes

  • Several ligaments and membranes connect the different cartilages and structures within the larynx, providing stability and maintaining the shape of the larynx.

Mucous Membrane

  • The interior of the larynx is lined with a mucous membrane that is continuous with the lining of the trachea and respiratory tract. This mucous membrane is essential for keeping the airway moist and facilitating smooth airflow during breathing and speaking.

Overall, the larynx is a complex and dynamic structure responsible for producing sound, protecting the airway, and assisting in various functions such as coughing and swallowing. Its appearance can vary slightly from person to person, and it serves a vital role in communication, singing, and the respiratory process.

What Are Vocal Folds Made Of?

A female singer in performance

Here's where things get interesting. Although many people try and describe the vocal cords in terms of a stringed instrument (such as the guitar), the folds' makeup is very different from a steel or nylon string.

The vocal cords are made up of three basic elements. 

  1. A length of ligament (connective tissue) - This is the first layer, where the term "cord" comes from.

  2. Vocal cord muscles - This second layer runs the length of the cord. These bands of muscle tissue are called the thyroarytenoid because of where they attach on either side. We will call it the TA muscle for short.

  3. A layer of soft mucosal tissue - This final layer covers the cords. The tissue appears as if folded over, hence the name "vocal folds." This soft tissue is necessary to allow the cords to vibrate and create sound waves.

The thyroarytenoid muscle highlighted within the vocal cord

Making Sound

Female singing in her kitchen

The folds are open and apart when breathing. When you phonate (produce sound or produce speech), the cords are brought together over the top of the trachea or windpipe, and when combined with air flow, it creates vocal fold vibration.

Now when air is blown through the closed folds, they vibrate and make a sound, much like the buzzing of a trumpet player's lips.

The degree to which the vocal folds close is important as not enough closure gives a weak, breathy sound or what's considered a breathy voice, and too much closure of these bands of tissue creates strain and possible vocal damage.

I often have students do the following simple exercise to experience different degrees of vocal cord closure:

  • Give a sigh – that is too little closure for most singing and practicing.

  • Grunt as if lifting something heavy – that is too much cord closure or vocal muscle. The muscles are pressing together too intensely.

  • Say "mmmm" as if you are eating your favorite food. That should give you a better sense of proper medium-level vocal cord closure.

Here is a video of what the vocal folds look like when talking and singing. This method uses a strobe light to record the folds of the human voice in slow motion. They are actually vibrating much faster.

Producing Pitch

The vocal cords are about the size of your thumbnail and contain no keys, tuning pegs, valves, multiple strings, or any of the other devices found in musical instruments, yet they can cover three octaves and more of range.

The cords can do this because of the interplay between the muscles and the ligament (cord).

In your lower register, you mainly change the pitch by increasing or decreasing tension in the TA muscles (the muscles that run the vocal cords' length). The vocal cords are short and thick in these lower notes, with the TA muscles doing most of the work.

As you raise pitch into your upper register, a new group of muscles becomes involved. These are called the cricothyroid muscles, or CT for short.

The cricothyroid muscle highlighted in the larynx

The CT muscles are attached to the front of the thyroid cartilage and pull the cartilage forward and slightly down. Since the folds are attached to the back of the cartilage, this action pulls and stretches the vocal folds.

The CT muscles stretch the cords, making the vocal cord lengths longer and thinner during vocal production. As a result, the vocal ligament also increases in tension, raising the pitch. This is just like stretching a rubber band.

A rubber band being stretched to illustrate the vocal cords adjusting for pitch

If you are a musician, you may be thinking if the cords are longer in head voice (the upper register), they should produce a lower note.

Yes, a longer string normally produces a lower note; however, the vocal folds more than compensate for this lengthening by becoming thinner and adding more tension. This gives us the ability to sing very high notes.

To reiterate: the vocal cords are short and thick in chest voice (or lower register) and long and thin in head voice (or upper register).

Muscle Interplay

Children playing tug of war

The relationship between the TA and CT muscles is significant in singing. If you engage too much TA tension when trying to sing higher, your voice will feel heavy, and you will be unable to reach the pitch. Conversely, if you relax the TA too much and the CT, or stretching, muscles engage too strongly, you will flip to a light falsetto.

The key is to have these two groups of opposing muscles in a happy balance, the tensions between them dialed in for each pitch.

Much of your training as a singer will involve balancing this muscular tension. Professional singers make this look easy, but more often than not, they have had years of vocal training to master this balance.

Think of the opposing muscles (the TA and CT) as involved in a game of tug-of-war, with the TA team being much bigger and stronger.

The TA muscles (within the vocal folds) tend to be stronger and more actively engaged in the beginning singer. As a result, the TA muscles will over-squeeze and jam up the voice as you go higher, only to suddenly let go and cause the singer to crack and flip into a falsetto.

Training Muscle Balance

an illustration of a baton

Even advanced singers deal with the TA muscles wanting to over-engage. This is why we go through a series of warmups to not only stretch the ligaments of the vocal folds but to encourage the TA muscles to give over to the stretching CT muscles.

The transfer from TA to CT is much like the handing of a baton in a relay race. A smooth transfer is an important part of running a successful race.

I highly encourage my students to warm up with a straw. The back pressure created by vocalizing through a straw helps the TA muscles relax enough to allow the CT muscles to do their job effectively. Warming up with a straw can also help to soothe a tired voice.

One of the major problem areas for singers is the transition between their lower register (chest voice) and their upper register (head voice).

This transition area is often called the "vocal break" because it is where the voice will tend to crack and struggle. The transfer from TA to CT occurs in this problem area.

The ability to hand over smoothly from the TA to CT muscles is vital in smoothing the vocal break and creating a seamless singing voice.

If you take voice lessons, your teacher will spend a large amount of time helping you smooth muscle transfer and help eliminate the vocal break.


When learning to move between your lower and upper register, I recommend you start singing lighter because a heavier sound can over-engage the TA muscles.

Here is an exercise from my book, Beginning Singing, that can help you smoothly move between your registers.

Vocal Issues

Improper balance and overuse of the voice can lead to vocal fatigue and chronic issues in singers and professional voice users.

One of the main problems or voice disorders is vocal cord nodules. When you use your voice with too much intensity for extended periods of time or try to sing higher notes with too much TA involvement, you are slamming your vocal cords together hundreds of times per second.

This vocal abuse to the vocal cord tissue of the vocal folds can lead to the formation of callouses, (vocal fold nodules), just like on your hands.

We call these vocal callouses "nodules," and while having these hardened bumps of skin on the palms of your hand is not usually an issue, these bumps create terrible problems for singers and, if not addressed, can lead to scar tissue. Extreme abuse can even lead to not only vocal cord dysfunction but can even lead to vocal fold paralysis. 

Vocal nodules prohibit your vocal folds from closing completely. Symptoms include weak or breathy singing and restricted range, especially in the upper notes.

Another common disorder is vocal cord lesions, such as vocal fold polyps and cysts. If you are noticing symptoms of any of these vocal cord disorders, it is very important to find the root cause. 

Vocal Cord Disorder Symptoms to Watch For:

  1. Pain - If you are experiencing pain while singing, STOP! This is your body telling you that something is wrong. Do not sing with a painful voice, as you can risk permanent damage. This is when you must start to investigate the root cause. 
  2. Change in voice quality - This could be from vocal fatigue (rest the voice) or could be from more advanced issues like vocal fold nodules, polyps, or cysts. If symptoms persist after rest, you may want to have a Laryngoscopy to find out what is causing the change in voice. 
  3. Chronic Laryngitis - If you are constantly experiencing inflammation that affects your voice or you feel a change in the way your throat feels (swelling or a lump), you will want to reach out to your health care providers to rule out gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or any underlying systemic disease.

Viral infections presenting as a respiratory infections will often cause acute laryngitis, so it is important to rest the voice until you feel better and any inflammation has resolved, especially if you are experiencing vocal cord paralysis (temporary loss of voice).

If you have been dealing with a hoarse voice or vocal cord weakness for more than a week (and you're not sick from a bad cold), or if your range or voice quality becomes consistently diminished, I recommend you seek out a skilled voice specialist who may prescribe voice therapy or speech therapy.

On a side note: common sense health habits such as drinking plenty of water, limiting alcohol consumption, and not smoking (or vaping, sorry) also lead to a healthier voice.

As in all things singing - good technique and healthy habits can help you avoid most vocal issues.

Take care of your voice, and you can enjoy singing for a lifetime.

If you would like to learn more about my books, courses, and John Henny's, please visit And if you are interested in online vocal lessons, you can reach out to our front desk at [email protected], and we would be happy to answer your questions. 

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